SQL and MySQL

MySQL is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) based on Structured Query Language (SQL).
MySQL runs on virtually all platforms, including Linux, UNIX, and Windows. Although it can be used in a wide range of applications, MySQL is most often associated with web-based applications and online publishing and is an important component of an open source enterprise stack called LAMP. LAMP is a Web development platform that uses Linux as the operating system, Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the relational database management system and PHP as the object-oriented scripting language. (Sometimes Perl or Python is used instead of PHP.)
MySQL, which was originally conceived by the Swedish company MySQL AB, was acquired by Sun Microsystems in 2008 and then by Oracle when it bought Sun in 2010. Developers can still use MySQL under the GNU General Public License (GPL), but enterprises must obtain a commercial license from Oracle.
Offshoots of MySQL are called forks. They include:
Drizzle – a lightweight open source database management system in development based on MySQL 6.0.
MariaDB – a popular community-developed “drop-in” replacement for MySQL that uses MySQL APIs and commands.
Percona Server with XtraDB– an enhanced version of MySQL known for horizontal scalability.
MySQL is the world’s most popular open source database. With its proven performance, reliability and ease-of-use, MySQL has become the leading database choice for web-based applications, used by high profile web properties including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Yahoo! and many more.
Oracle drives MySQL innovation, delivering new capabilities to power next generation web, cloud, mobile and embedded applications.
SQL is a language to operate databases; it includes database creation, deletion, fetching rows, modifying rows, etc. SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard language, but there are many different versions of the SQL language.
What is SQL?
SQL is Structured Query Language, which is a computer language for storing, manipulating and retrieving data stored in a relational database.
SQL is the standard language for Relational Database System. All the Relational Database Management Systems (RDMS) like MySQL, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Postgres and SQL Server use SQL as their standard database language.
Also, they are using different dialects, such as −
MS SQL Server using T-SQL,
Oracle using PL/SQL,
MS Access version of SQL is called JET SQL (native format) etc.
Why SQL?
SQL is widely popular because it offers the following advantages −
Allows users to access data in the relational database management systems.
Allows users to describe the data.
Allows users to define the data in a database and manipulate that data.
Allows to embed within other languages using SQL modules, libraries & pre-compilers.
Allows users to create and drop databases and tables.
Allows users to create view, stored procedure, functions in a database.
Allows users to set permissions on tables, procedures and views.
A Brief History of SQL
1970 − Dr. Edgar F. “Ted” Codd of IBM is known as the father of relational databases. He described a relational model for databases.
1974 − Structured Query Language appeared.
1978 − IBM worked to develop Codd’s ideas and released a product named System/R.
1986 − IBM developed the first prototype of relational database and standardized by ANSI. The first relational database was released by Relational Software which later came to be known as Oracle.
SQL Process
When you are executing an SQL command for any RDBMS, the system determines the best way to carry out your request and SQL engine figures out how to interpret the task.
There are various components included in this process.
These components are −
Query Dispatcher
Optimization Engines
Classic Query Engine
SQL Query Engine, etc.
A classic query engine handles all the non-SQL queries, but a SQL query engine won’t handle logical files.